Focusing on A.D.D
Take EEG neurofeedback and EMG biofeedback, for example. EEG (electroencephalography) represents a computerized training that teaches children how to recognize and control their brain waves. Researchers have observed that those with ADD have higher rates of theta waves (associated with low stimulation, dreaming, and inattentiveness) and lower rates of beta waves (associated with concentration and attention). A computer game controlled by the production of beta waves teaches children the "feel" of a beta wave state until they can eventually reproduce it at will.
In one controlled open trial led by Michael Linden, Ph.D., in 1996, children with ADD showed a 9-point IQ increase over a 40-week period using EEG. EEG appears to work best for inattentive ADD children, but it involves undergoing many sessions and can be expensive, at a cost of about $50 per session. However, on the plus side, there are no adverse physical or psychological side effects.
EMG (electromyography) works similarly to EEG, except it trains deep muscle relaxation instead of brain waves. When muscles relax to a desired degree, a computer generates a tone. By learning to control this tone, subjects can learn deep relaxation. This treatment is not as popular as EEG, but substantial scientific literature supports its effectiveness. It also represents an important therapy because it works with the most troublesome group of ADD sufferers, hyperactive boys. A study published in Biofeedback and Self-Regulation (1984; 9:353–64) found junior high hyperactive boys attained significantly higher reading and language performance after just six 25-minute EMG-assisted relaxation sessions.
Another study, published in the Journal of Clinical Psychology (1982; 38:92–100), which focused on hyperactive boys aged 6 to 12, found significant improvement in behavior observations, parent ratings, and psychological tests after 10 relaxation training sessions. But this data also revealed something interesting: The effect of EMG biofeedback closely resembles the type of neural relaxation work that occurs in yoga. Why is this important? Some experts now believe a combination of physical and mental discipline may be the best approach in treating ADD safely and effectively for the long term.
According to John Ratey, M.D., coauthor of Driven to Distraction: Recognizing and Coping with Attention Deficit Disorder from Childhood Through Adulthood (Simon & Schuster, 1995), exercise that integrates both the body and mind engages the attention system more readily than meditation alone. "[Many studies have shown that] the greatest yield of nerve growth factors happens when the body engages in complex movement patterns," says Ratey.
The Yoga Connection
It's important to realize, though, that while yoga may help those with ADD, it is not a miracle worker. It requires time and discipline—concepts that can be difficult for those with ADD to master. In many cases, it takes a year or more for the effects of yoga to make any difference, while medication works in minutes. But the benefits of medication wear off along with the prescription. The effects of yoga—which include suppleness, poise, and better concentration—are much longer lasting: They develop gradually through a type of learning that transforms the entire person. There is no learning or transformation involved in taking a pill.