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Four-Limbed Staff Pose (Chaturanga Dandasana): The Complete Guide

Chaturanga Dandasana is not merely a push-up. This pivotal yoga pose is instrumental to your practice—and requires you to summon strength throughout your body.


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Four-Limbed Staff Pose (Chaturanga Dandasana) is a foundational posture that can make you feel strong—or just powerfully frustrated. But the payoffs of the pose are nearly endless: Chaturanga Dandasana improves stability, works the abdominals, builds healthy shoulders, and helps get the body ready to tackle arm balances, inversions, and backbends.

Chaturanga Dandasana shouldn’t be relegated to a simple push-up—it’s much more than that. The posture requires breath control, discipline, the willingness to overcome discomfort, and of course, proper alignment.

“For the first couple of years of my yoga life, Four-Limbed Staff Pose was the bête noire of my practice,” explains Natasha Rizopoulos, a senior teacher with Down Under School of Yoga. “Over time, though, Chaturanga has become a great friend and teacher, helping me to develop the strength and stability that once seemed elusive.”

“When I first began practicing yoga years ago, I used to think a full Chaturanga Dandasana wouldn’t ever be in my comfort zone,” says Yoga Journal contributing editor Gina Tomaine. “But over years of practice, my awareness about my muscles and posture changed, as did my strength-level. Now, my comfort zone has changed, too—and this pose has become an accessible and welcome part of my routine.”

A truly engaged Four-Limbed Staff Pose is all about alignment. If you can arrange your limbs in a way that promotes pose integrity, the entire posture will unlock for you. “Chaturanga isn’t just about upper-body strength—that’s a misperception,” says Rizopoulos. “To practice with integrity and ease, you’ll need to distribute the work throughout the entire body by rallying the power of your abdomen, spine, legs, and heels.”

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Four-Limbed Staff Pose basics

Sanskrit: Chaturanga Dandasana (chaht-tour-ANG-ah don-DAHS-anna)

chaturanga = four limbs
chatur = four
anga = limb
danda = staff (refers to the spine, the central “staff” or support of the body)

Pose type: Arm Balance

Target area: Full Body

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Benefits

Four-Limbed Staff Pose boosts energy, fights fatigue, and builds confidence and empowerment.

Other Chaturanga Dandasana Perks:

  • Strengthens your core, shoulders, arms, wrists, thighs, and ankles.
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Step-by-step instructions

  1. From Plank Pose, align your shoulders slightly ahead of your wrists and come onto the balls of your feet.
  2. Push back through your heels to engage your quadriceps as you reach your sternum forward, creating a straight, taut line of energy from the crown of your head through your feet.
  3. On an inhalation, draw your shoulders and the tops of your thighs up and away from the floor. Pull your lower body up and in, and release your tailbone toward the floor.
  4. On an exhalation, bend your elbows and slowly lower your body (keeping it as straight as a plank of wood) until your elbows are at around 90 degrees. Keep your elbows directly over your wrists and drawn in against your sides. Press your hands firmly into the floor.
  5. Bring your gaze to the floor, about 6 inches in front of you, and continue to lower until your shoulders are at the same height as your elbows.
  6. Continue to reach through the heels, sternum, and crown of your head as you breathe.
  7. To come out of the pose, exhale and lower down to your belly or push back up to Plank Pose.
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Explore the pose

Even experienced students have difficulty with Chaturanga Dandasana. The key to this posture is utilizing your arm strength: Engage your biceps and triceps, taking both elbows into a right angle to the best of your ability.

As you lower into your hover, stay centered and avoid shifting sideways. Try to tip your hips slightly forward while engaging your gluteal and abdominal muscles to hold your trunk solid. Another trick: Lay a thickly rolled blanket on the floor below your Plank Pose, parallel to your spine. Lower yourself lightly onto this support. Use it minimally, just enough to keep yourself afloat.

Tighten the legs by activating your calf muscles in order to flex your ankles (a simple cue for this is “reach through your heels”), energizing your body in this posture from front to back.

Common mistakes

  • When you first start practicing this pose, it’s very common for your elbows to splay out or your shoulders to dip. A strap can help you avoid this. Make a hip-width loop with a strap and place it just above your elbows. Come to Plank Pose and lower down as you would for Chaturanga Dandasana, but let the strap catch your ribs and help support you, keeping your elbows pinned to your sides and in line with your shoulders. Adjust the strap so it is taut when you are in the pose.

Be mindful!

  • Do not bring your shoulders below your elbows or bend your elbows beyond a 90-degree angle.
  • Keep your core engaged.
  • Avoid or modify this pose if you have a rotator cuff injury or shoulder weakness, shoulder arthritis, or shoulder injuries. You may also want to avoid or modify the pose if you have wrist arthritis, wrist pain, or carpal tunnel syndrome.
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Chaturanga Dandasana variations

Here are three variations of Four-Limbed Staff Pose that you can use while working up to the posture—or just enjoy them on their own.

Photo: Christopher Dougherty

Four-Limbed Staff Pose with knees down

If you’re still building arm strength, lower your knees to the mat. Maintain an engaged core.

Photo: Eleanor Williamson

Four-Limbed Staff Pose prep with blocks and a strap

Place 2 blocks at the highest height beneath your upper arms and shoulders to prevent your shoulders from going below your elbows.

To help ensure your belly doesn’t drop too low, bring a looped strap around your upper arms with the loop about the width of your shoulders. Position the strap so it hits right below your chest as you come into the pose.

Stay in the pose for several deep breaths, allowing the safe alignment to become part of your muscle memory.

Photo: Christopher Dougherty

Four-Limbed Staff Pose against a wall

You can get a feel for this challenging position (and take pressure off your shoulders) by practicing it standing upright. Stand and face a wall, a few inches away from the wall. Press your hands against the wall, slightly lower than the level of your shoulders. Imagine that you are trying to push yourself away from the wall, but the firmness of your shoulder blades against the back prevents any movement. Lengthen your tailbone into your heels and lift the top of your sternum toward the ceiling.

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Preparatory and counter poses

Preparatory poses

Plank Pose

Bhujangasana (Cobra Pose)

Dolphin Pose

Forearm Plank Pose

Salabhasana (Locust Pose)

Sphinx Pose

Utthan Pristhasana (Lizard Pose)

Counter poses

Purvottanasana (Reverse Plank Pose)

Urdhva Mukha Svanasana (Upward-Facing Dog Pose)

Adho Mukha Svanasana (Downward-Facing Dog Pose)

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Your body in Chaturanga Dandasana | Anatomy

Many yoga sequences rely on Four-Limbed Staff Pose to transition from Uttanasana to Upward-Facing Dog during Surya Namaskar A (Sun Salutation A) or in vinyasa flow sequences.

When lowering your body, activate the pectoralis major to hold your upper body off the floor, says Ray Long, MD, a board-certified orthopedic surgeon and yoga instructor. One cue for accessing this muscle is to attempt to draw your elbows toward one another. Another way to support your elbows is by activating your triceps. This prevents your elbows from bending more than 90 degrees and maintains the forearms at a right angle to the floor.

In the drawings below, pink muscles are stretching and blue muscles are contracting. The shade of the color represents the force of the stretch and the force of contraction. Darker = stronger.

Four-Limbed Staff Pose: Chaturanga Dandasana
Illustration: Chris Macivor

Engage the quadriceps to straighten your legs. To do this, draw your kneecaps toward your pelvis.

Four-Limbed Staff Pose: Chaturanga Dandasana
Illustration: Chris Macivor

Attempt to drag your hands forward as you press the mounds of the index fingers into the mat to engage the pronators teres and the quadratus of the forearms. Your hands won’t move, but the force of contracting those muscles will stabilize the shoulders and upper extremities. At the same time, press your feet backward as if you were pushing out of runner’s starting blocks. This activates the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles of your calves, stabilizing your ankles. The net effect of these actions is the creation of a stabilizing bandha throughout the body.

Four-Limbed Staff Pose: Chaturanga Dandasana
Illustration: Chris Macivor

There is a tendency to let your body sag a bit when lowering into Chaturanga Dandasana. Anticipate this and prepare to counteract it by engaging the rectus abdominus and psoas muscles to support your midsection and pelvis and maintain the body as a plank of wood.

Excerpted with permission from The Key Poses of Yoga and Anatomy for Vinyasa Flow and Standing Poses by Ray Long.

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Put Chaturanga Dandasana into practice

Your Step-by-Step Guide to Flowing Through Surya Namaskar A

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About our contributors

Teacher and model Natasha Rizopoulos is a senior teacher at Down Under Yoga in Boston, where she offers classes and leads 200- and 300-hour teacher trainings. A dedicated Ashtanga practitioner for many years, she became equally as captivated by the precision of the Iyengar system. These two traditions inform her teaching and her dynamic, anatomy-based vinyasa system Align Your Flow. For more information, visit natasharizopoulos.com.

Ray Long is an orthopedic surgeon and the founder of Bandha Yoga, a popular series of yoga anatomy books, and the Daily Bandha, which provides tips and techniques for teaching and practicing safe alignment. Ray graduated from the University of Michigan Medical School and pursued post-graduate training at Cornell University, McGill University, the University of Montreal, and the Florida Orthopedic Institute. He has studied hatha yoga for over 20 years, training extensively with B.K.S. Iyengar and other leading yoga masters, and teaches anatomy workshops at yoga studios around the country.